Political History of Peru

A political overview of 500 years of Peru's history from Spanish rule to today

Since Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in 1532, Peru had a turbulent history with many ups and lots of downs. The country has seen many rulers and forms of government from Spanish conquistadores and viceroys to freedom fighters and caudillos to civilian and military presidents to dictators and right, center and left presidents.

Below you find an overview of the political developments in Peru over the past 500 years which hopefully not only summarizes the facts but explains the complex contexts allowing you to understand today’s political structure and the causes for Peru’s current political, economic and social problems.

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After Fujimori's resignation, a caretaker government under Valentin Paniagua oversaw democratic presidential and congressional elections in April 2001. The newly elected government, led by Alejandro Toledo as president, took office on the July 28, 2001.
In June 2006 Alan Garcia, candidate of the Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) was elected president once again. After a really disastrous presidential term from 1985 to 1990, Garcia made clear to have learned from his past mistakes and returned to the presidency with many promises to improve Peru's social conditions.

President Ollanta Humala from 2011 to 2016

Political History of Peru
After a fierce run-off with Keiko Fujimori, the daughter of former president Alberto Fujimori, Ollanta Humala was elected as President of Peru in 2011.
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK), a highly respected economist and invest banker, who worked among others at the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund before entering Peruvian politics where he served as Minister of Energy and Mines in the early 1980s under President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, and as Minister of Economy and Finance and Prime M...
After the resignation of Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK), Martin Vizcarra, First Vice President and Peruvian Ambassador to Canada, was sworn in as new Peruvian President in March 2018 and was supposed to finish PPK’s term in July 2021.
After the controversial removal of the popular Martin Vizcarra on November 9, 2020, which many Peruvians, political analysts, and the media, considered being a coup d'état, Manuel Merino, the President of Congress, was appointed as new Peruvian president and immediately formed a far-right government.

President Pedro Castillo from 2021 to 2022

Political History of Peru
The 2021 presidential election saw far-left Pedro Castillo, a political greenhorn in Lima, and hard-right Keiko Fujimori, who is not only the daughter of former president Alberto Fujimori, but as well an old-timer on the political stage in Peru, in the run-off for the presidency. So, once more Peruvians had the choice between pest and cholera.
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