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Facts & Figures about Peru

Important Facts and Figures about Peru

The most important numbers, stats, data, and information about Peru in a nutshell

Peru Facts & Figures include detailed numbers, data, and stats, as well as lots of useful information about Peru related to the following topics: Geography of Peru, Peruvian government & administration, Peru's national symbols, Peruvian economy, people of Peru, health & education in Peru, infrastructure & transport in Peru.


Content Overview


1 General Information about Peru

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is located in western South America. The country borders in the north on Ecuador and Colombia, in the east on Brazil and Bolivia, in the south on Chile and in the west on the Pacific Ocean.

Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, and the 19th largest in the world.

The Peruvian territory covers an area of 1,285,216 square kilometers (496,225 square miles) and is geographically divided into three zones: the coast (costa): the western coastal plain with deserts, beaches and fertile valleys; the mountain region (sierra): the mountainous area dominated by the Andes that crosses the country in north-south-direction; and the jungle (selva): the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin.

Even though the coastal region only accounts for about 11% of the Peruvian territory, more than half of the population (58.8%) lives in this area. The Andean region, however, is home to 27.1% of the population, whereas only 14.2% of Peruvians live in the lowland jungle.

Lima is the capital of Peru, while the neighboring, independent city of Callao, with its busy port and international airport, is the country’s gateway to the world.

Peruvian Currency

Since 1991 the Peruvian currency is the “Nuevo Sol” (S/.), which was renamed to just “Sol” (S/) in 2016 - plural (Nuevos) Soles. Its international code is PEN. There are banknotes for S/ 10, S/ 20, S/ 50, S/ 100 and S/ 200. Current coins include 10, 20 and 50 centimos as well as 1 Sol, 2 Soles and 5 Soles. The 1 centimo coins initially issued in 1991 and following years were removed from circulation in 2011 and the 5 centimos coins in 2019.

Current Peruvian Banknotes

Current Peruvian Banknotes & Coins
The current banknotes of Peru are not only lovely with famous Peruvian personalities on the front and either amazing archaeological sites or exampl...

Current Peruvian Coins

Current Peruvian Banknotes & Coins
Like the current Peruvian banknotes, the Peruvian coins in circulation reflect the country's rich historical and cultural past, but additionally as...

Time zone in Peru

GMT -5

Telephone dialling code for peru

+ (51)

Web page / internet abbreviation for Peru

.pe / .com.pe

Electricity in Peru

230V / 60Hz

Peruvian climate

Generally  Peru’s climate is:

  • Arid and mild in the coastal area
  • Temperate to frigid in the Andes
  • Warm and humid in the jungle lowlands

Flora and fauna of Peru

  • Peru is home to 84 of the world's 103 ecosystems
  • The country is among the five most important centers in the world for genetic resources of plants and animals

2 Geography of Peru


Location of Peru

Western South America at the Pacific Ocean

Neighboring countries of Peru

  • North: Ecuador (border of 1420 km) and Colombia (border of 1800 km)
  • East: Brazil (border of 2995 km) and Bolivia (border of 1075 km)
  • South: Chile (border of 171km)
  • West: Pacific Ocean (coastline of 2414 km)

Peru's surface area

  • Total: 1,285,216 km² (496,224.5 sq mi)
  • Land: 99.6%
  • Water: 0.4%

Peruvian terrain types

  • 11.7% Costa - Western coastal plain with deserts, beautiful beaches and fertile valleys
  • 28.4% Sierra - Mountainous area dominated by the Andes that runs through the country in north-south direction
  • 59.9% Selva - Eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin

Elevation extremes in Peru

  • Lowest point: Bayóvar Depression -34 m (-112ft)
  • Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m (22,205 ft)

Longest rivers in Peru

  • Rio Ucayali 1,771 km (1100 miles)
  • Rio Marañón 1,414 km (879 miles)
  • Rio Putumayo 1,380 km (858 miles)
  • Rio Yavarí 1,184 km (736 miles)
  • Rio Huallaga 1,136 km (707 miles)
  • Rio Urubamba 862 km (536 miles)
  • Rio Mantaro 724 km (450 miles
  • Rio Amazon 713 km (443 miles)

Lakes in Peru

Peru has more than 12,000 lakes and lagoons that were created by glaciers and tectonic movement. Most lakes are on the eastern slopes of the Andes mountains.

The largest lake in Peru is Lake Titicaca in southern Peru bordering Bolivia. It covers 36,180 hectares (89,403 acres). With a surface elevation of 3,812 m (12,507 ft) it’s the highest navigable lake in the world and additionally by surface area and volume the largest lake in South America.

The second largest lake is Lake Junin, followed by the Arapa Lagoon.

Tallest waterfalls in Peru

  • Tres Hermanas (three sisters) waterfall in the Junin region with 914 m (3,000 ft)
  • Yumbilla waterfall in the Amazonas region with 896 m (2,938 ft)
  • Gocta waterfall in the Amazonas region with 771 m (2,531ft)

Land use in Peru (estimates 2018)

  • Forest: 53%
  • Agricultural land: 18.8%
  • Other: 28.2%

Natural hazards in Peru

  • Earthquakes
  • Tsunamis
  • Flooding
  • Landslides
  • Mild volcanic activity

Main Peruvian cities (projected population 2021; INEI)

  • Lima Metropolitana: 10.9 millions citizens; Lima 9,786,800 and Callao 1,136,000
  • Arequipa: 1,121,500 citizens
  • Trujillo: 1,088,300 citizens
  • Chiclayo: 605,300 citizens
  • Piura: 549,700 citizens
  • Huancayo: 538,100 citizens
  • Cusco: 512,500 citizens
  • Iquitos: 446.900 citizens
  • Pucallpa: 401,400 citizens
  • Chimbote: 398,100 citizens
  • Ica: 340,600 citizens
  • Tacna: 331,200 citizens
  • Juliaca: 321,800 citizens
  • Ayacucho: 261,000 citizens
  • Cajamarca: 239,000 citizens

3 Peruvian government & administration


Official country name of Peru

República del Perú - Republic of Peru

Form of government in Peru

Constitutional Republic

Capital of Peru


Independence of Peru

28th July 1821 (from Spain)

Peruvian constitution

Latest 29th December 1993 (last amended 2015)

Legal System in Peru

Based on a civil law system

Executive branch

  • Chief of state: President Francisco Sagasti (since 2020)
  • Head of government: President Francisco Sagasti (since 2020)
  • Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and led by the Prime Minister
  • Elections: President elected by popular vote for 5 years

Legislative branch

  • Unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru with 130 seats.
  • Members are elected by popular vote for a five-year term

Judicial branch

Supreme Court of Justice. Judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Administrative Divisions of Peru

Peru is divided into 24 regions (“departmentos”) and 2 provinces: Amazonas, Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacuhco, Cajamarca, Province of Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima region, Province of Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali.

Find more detailed information

Politics of Peru

Peru Info
Peru is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic with the Peruvian president being the head of state and the head of government. The ...


 4 Peru’s national symbols


Peru’s National Anthem - Himno Nacional del Perú

Peru’s national anthem was composed by José Bernardo Alcedo shortly after the Peruvian independence. While since then the lyrics of the “Marcha Nacional” (the National March) were rewritten several times, they tell the story of a proud and free nation.

After Peru declared its independence in 1820, General José de San Martín began a public contest to select the National March, which was published o...

Peru’s National Flags & Coat of Arms

  • Peru’s national flag is the “Bandera Nacional”. It has three equal, vertical bands in red, white and red. The red symbolizes the bloodshed during the struggle for Peru's independence and the bravery of the men fighting for freedom, while the white stands for peace and justice.
  • The Peruvian state flag, called “Pabellón Nacional”, is only used during official state businesses or by Peruvian state institutions. It has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the National Flag; but includes in the central white band includes the Peruvian Coat of Arms, the so called “Escudo de Armas”.
  • The Peruvian Coat of Arms consists of the national shield (the Escudo Nacional) which features a vicuña (Peru's national animal) on the upper left, a chinchona tree (native to the tropical Andes region and the source for the anti-malaria drug quinine) on the upper right and a cornucopia filled with coins on the bottom. These images represent Peru's fauna, flora and mineral wealth. The shield is topped with a Holm oak Civic Crown and surrounded by a palm branch on the left and a laurel branch on the right that are tied together with a red and white ribbon.
  • The war flag of Peru is the Bandera De Guerra. Used only by the Armed Forces and National Police the war flag has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the national flag and the state flag, but includes in the central white band the national shield flanked by Peruvian flags instead of the palm and laurel branches used on the state flag.

The red and white colors of the Peruvian flag were an inspiration of General José de San Martín. There are various theories and interpretations abo...

Peru’s “unofficial” national symbols

National colors: Red and white
National animal: Vicuña
National bird: Andean Cock-of-the-rock
National flower: Cantulope, also known as Flor de Inca (flower of the Inca)
National instrument: Cajón
National drinks: Pisco Sour and Inka Cola
National dish: Ceviche


5 Peruvian economy


Peruvian economy - World positioning

The Peruvian economy is the 39th largest in the world and is classified by the World Bank as upper middle income.

GDP in Peru

  • GDP: US$ 202.014 billion in 2020 (Worldbank)
  • GDP annual variation 2020: -11.1% (INEI)
  • GDP (PPP) total: US$$ 391.68 billion in 2020 (Worldbank)
  • GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 11,879 in 2020 (Worldbank)

GDP by sector in 2019 (INEI)

  • Manufacture: 12.8%
  • Mining: 12.1%
  • Commerce, maintenance and repair of vehicles: 10.4%
  • Construction: 5.9%
  • Transport & courier service: 5.7%
  • Agriculture: 5.4%
  • Public administration: 5.1%
  • Services provided to companies: 5%
  • Telecommunications: 4.6%
  • Finances and insurances: 4.7%
  • Hospitality: 3.2%
  • Electricity, gas, water: 1.9%
  • Fishery: 0.3%
  • Other services: 13.8%
  • Import duties and product taxes: 9%

Inflation Rate in Peru

  • Inflation rate 2020: 1.97% (BCRP)

Peruvian net international reserves

US$ 74.707 billion December 2020 (BCRP)

Labor and employment in Peru (INEI)

  • Working age population March 2021: 25.12 million
  • Economically active population nation March 2021: 17.6 million (70% of working age population)
  • Unemployment rate nation March 2021: 8.8%
  • Underemployment rate nation March 2021: 49.3%
  • Adequate employment rate nation March 2021: 43.2%
  • Formal employment 2021: 22.7%
  • Informal employment 2021: 77.3%
  • Informal employment urban areas 2021: 66.4%
  • Informal employment rural areas 2021: 95.2%
  • Minimum wage since April 2018: S/ 930 per month
  • Average wage nation 2020: S/ 1,503 per month
  • Average real income per inhabitant 2020: S/ 837 per month (a minus of 20.8% compared to 2019)

Poverty in Peru (INEI)

  • Poverty rate nation 2020: 30.1% (an increase of 9.9% compared to 2019)
  • Poverty rate in urban areas 2020: 26%
  • Poverty rate in rural areas 2020: 45.7%
  • Extreme poverty rate 2020: 5.1% (an increase of 2.2% compared to 2019)

Natural resources in Peru

Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, natural gas, hydro-power

Industries in Peru

Mining and refining of minerals, steel, metal fabrication, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing.

Agriculture in Peru

Asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs.

Exports from Peru

  • Total value of exports 2019: US$ 46.13 billion (BCRP)
  • 3,315 products were exported to 172 countries (2019)
  • Major exported products: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver, crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coffee, asparagus, and other vegetables, fruits, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys (INEI 2019)
  • Major export partners 2019: China (29.36%), USA (12.46%), Canada (5.22%), Republic of Korea (4.94%), Switzerland (4.91%)

Imports to Peru

  • Total value of imports 2019: US$ 42.37 billion (BCRP)
  • 4,129 products were imported from around the globe (2019)
  • Major imported products: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunications equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines (INEI)
  • Major import partners 2019: China (24.22%), USA (20.79%), Brazil 5.73%, Mexico (4.37%), Argentina (4.18%)

6 People of Peru


Population in Peru (INEI)

  • Population 2020: 33,039,912
  • 50.6% men; 49.4% women
  • Population density 2020: 26 persons per km² (67 persons per square mile)
  • Population growth 2020: 1.4%
Population Development Peru 1836 - 2021
Development of the Peruvian population from 1836 to 2021; data for 1836 - 2017 from Censuses 1836, 1850, 1862, 1876, 1940, 1961,1972, 1981, 1993, 2007 and 2017; data for 2021 is an estimate from Population estimates and projections 1950 - 2050 (source: INEI)

Population distribution in Peru (INEI)

  • Coast 2021: 58.8%
  • Highlands 2021: 27.0%
  • Amazonian lowlands 2021: 14.2%
  • Urban areas 2020: 79.1%
  • Rural areas 2020: 20.9%

Age distribution in Peru (INEI)

  • 0-11 years: 19.6%
  • 12-17 years: 9.5%
  • 18-29 years: 19.4%
  • 30-59 years: 38.6%
  • 60 years and over: 12.9%
  • Average age 2021: 33.2 years
Population pyramid Peru 2020
Population Pyramid Peru 2020 (source: INEI Population report 2020)

Ethnic groups in Peru (data from census 2017)

In the 2017 population census, Peruvians were asked to ethnically identify themselves for the first time. Below numbers are the results of this self-identification.

  • 60.2% Mestizo (mixed native American and white)
  • 22.3% Quechua
  • 5.9% White
  • 3.6% Afro-Peruvians
  • 2.4% Aymara
  • 5.6% indigenous or natives from the Amazonian lowlands, Nikkei (Japanese-Peruvian), Tusan (Chinese-Peruvian) and others

Languages in Peru (data from census 2017)

  • Spanish (official) spoken by 82.6% of the population
  • Quechua (official) spoken by 13.9% of the population
  • Aymara (official) spoken by 1.7% of the population
  • A large number of indigenous Amazonian languages spoken by 0.8% of the population
  • Other foreign languages spoken by 0.2% of the population

Religions in Peru (data from census 2017)

  • 76% Roman Catholics
  • 14.1% Evangelical Protestants
  • 4.8% others
  • 5.1% none

7 Health and education in Peru


Health in Peru (INEI)

  • Life expectancy of women 2020: 79.5 years
  • Life expectancy of men 2020: 74.1 years
  • Life expectancy total population 2020: 76.9 years
  • Infant mortality rate 2020: 12.6 deaths / 1000 live births
  • Death rate 2020: 5.9 deaths / 1000 citizens
  • Birth rate 2020: 17.4 births / 1000 citizens
  • Fertility rate 2020: 2.3 live births per woman
  • Malnourished children under 5 years 2020: 12.1%
  • In urban areas: 7.2%; in rural areas: 24.7%
  • Coastal areas: 5.9%; highlands: 21.2%; jungle: 16.8%
  • Population with health insurance nation (public or private) in 2019: 75.5%; from these 44.4% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud), 24.8% EsSalud and 5.1% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with health insurance in urban areas (public or private) in 2019: 73.5%; from these 39.7% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud),  27.9% EsSalud and 7.2% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with health insurance in rural areas (public or private) in 2019: 83.2%; from these 76.9% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud), 5.8% EsSalud and 0.4% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with chronic disease 33.9% - urban areas 35.8%; rural areas 27.6%
Civilization Diseases Peru
Peruvians suffering from civilization diseases - Diabetes Typ2 (red), Hypertension (green), Overweight (blue) and Obesity (yellow) - in percent from 2014 to 2019 (data source: INEI)
  • Population with any kind of disability 10.4%
  • from these 48.3% are visually impaired, 15.1% have difficulties walking, 7.6% are hearing impaired, 4.2% have learning difficulties and 3.1% are speech impaired

Major Infectious Diseases in Peru

  • Food or waterborne diseases: Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and typhoid fever
  • Vector borne disease: Dengue fever and Oroya fever

Education in Peru (data from census 2017)

  • Literacy: 94.2% of the Peruvian population age 15 and older can read and write
  • Peruvian students attend school for an average of 10.1 years
  • 19.7% of the adult population has a university education
  • 14.3% of the adult population has a tertiary education (no university)
  • 41.3% of the adult population has a secondary education
  • 19,5% of the adult population has a primary or lower level education
  • 5% of the adult population has no formal education
  • 85% of Peru's students attend public schools
  • 15% of Peru's students attend private schools
  • Education expenditures 2019: 3.8% of GDP (CIA Factbook)

 8 Infrastructure & transport in Peru


Access to basic infrastructure (data from census 2017)

  • 79.3% of households are connected to the public water supply; 91.5% in urban areas, 67.8% in rural areas
  • 7.3% of households depend on underground wells
  • 4.7% of households use public wells
  • 4.5% of households get water from rivers and springs
  • 4.2% of households depend on water trucks
  • 66.6% of households are connected to the public wastewater system; 86.9% in urban areas, 40.3% in rural areas
  • 17.1% of households use a soakaway
  • 6.7% of households have to dump their wastewater in rivers, open fields or outdoors
  • 5.6% of households use a latrine
  • 4% of households have a septic tank
  • 87.7% of households are connected to electricity; 98.9% in urban areas, 78.8% in rural areas

Communication and Media (data from census 2017)

  • 21.9% of households have a fixed telephone line
  • 83.8 % of households in Peru have a cell phone - Lima 94.3%; urban areas 93.8%; rural areas 77.8%
  • 37.6% of the population has cable TV - Lima 58.6%; urban areas 34.8%, rural areas 9.1%
  • 32.6% of the population has a PC at home
  • 28% of households are connected to the internet
  • 50.5% of the population has access to internet - Lima 74.1%; urban areas 51.3%; rural areas 15.6%

Airports in Peru

Peru has over 200 airports and airstrips from which only 27 have scheduled services: 5 international airports and 22 national airports.

International Airports in Peru

  • Lima / Callao: Jorge Chávez International Airport
  • Arequipa: Rodríguez Ballón International Airport
  • Chiclayo: FAP Captain José Abelardo Quiñones González International Airport
  • Cusco: Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport
  • Trujillo: Cap. FAP Carlos Martínez de Pinillos International Airport

Domestic Airports in Peru

  • Andahuaylas: Andahuaylas Airport
  • Atalaya: Tnte. Gral. Gerardo Pérez Pinedo Airport
  • Ayacucho: FAP Coronel Alfredo Mendívil Duarte Airport
  • Cajamarca: FAP Mayor General Armando Revoredo Iglesias Airport
  • Chachapoyas: Chachapoyas Airport
  • Huánuco: FAP David Figueroa Fernandini Airport
  • Huaraz: FAP Commander Germán Arias Graziani
  • Ilo: Ilo Airport
  • Iquitos: FAP Coronel Francisco Secada Vignetta International Airport
  • Jaén: Jaén Airport
  • Jauja: Francisco Carlé Airport
  • Juliaca: Inca Manco Cápac International Airport
  • Piura: FAP Captain Guillermo Concha Iberico International Airport
  • Pucallpa: FAP Captain David Abensur Rengifo International Airport
  • Puerto Maldonado: Padre Aldamiz International Airport
  • Punta Sal: Walter Braedt Segu Aerodrome
  • Tacna: FAP Coronel Carlos Ciriani Santa Rosa International Airport
  • Talara: FAP Captain Victor Montes Arias Airport
  • Tarapoto: FAP Cadet Guillermo del Castillo Paredes Airport
  • Tingo María: Tingo María Airport
  • Tumbes: FAP Captain Pedro Canga Rodríguez Airport
  • Yurimaguas: Moisés Benzaquen Rengifo Airport

Military Airports in Peru

  • Lima: Las Palmas Air Base
  • Arequipa: Mariano Melgar Air Base, La Joya
  • Ica: San Juan de Marcona Aerodrome
  • Iquitos: Teniente Bergerie Airport
  • Talara: El Pato Air Base

Ports in Peru

Peru has over 100 ports which are classified as sea, river and lake ports.

Main seaports

  • Callao: the country's main cargo and container port as well as the most important container transhipment port on the west coast of South America
  • Paita
  • Matarani
  • Talara
  • Salaverry
  • Ilo
  • Chimbote
  • San Martin (Pisco)

Main river ports

  • Iquitos
  • Pucallpa
  • Yurimaguas

Railways in Peru (CIA Factbook 2014)

  • 1,854.4 km of railway tracks in Peru (1152.27 Miles)
  • 1730.4 km with standard gauge (1074.97 Miles)
  • 124 km with narrow gauge (77.05 Miles)

Roads in Peru (2018)

Peru has 164,000 km (102,000 miles) of roads and tracks. From the about 36,000km (22,400 miles) national roads more or less 80% are paved.

Waterways in Peru

8808 km (5,500 miles) of waterways in Peru


Facts & Figures about Lima

For detailed numbers, data, and stats, as well as lots of useful information about Lima check out our extensive "Important Facts and Figures about Lima"

Facts and figures about Lima, including general info, geography, climate, key problems, population, education, transport, tourism, economy, distric...

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