Important Facts and Figures about Peru

Important Facts and Figures about Peru Important Facts and Figures about Peru

General Information about Peru

Peru is located in the central part of South America and borders on the north with Ecuador and Colombia, on the east with Brazil and Bolivia, on the south with Chile and on the west with the Pacific Ocean. The Peruvian territory covers an area of 1,285.216 square kilometers. More than half of the Peruvian population (54.6%) lives on the coast. The Andean region is home to 32%, whereas only 13.4% of the total population lives on the Amazonian plains. Lima is the capital city of the Republic.

Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, and ranks among the 20 largest countries in the world. The country's location facilitates the access to markets in Asia and the United States of America, which enables its projection as a linking bridge between markets in South America and Southeast Asia.

Peruvian National, State & War Flag

Peruvian National, State & War Flag

National Anthem of Peru - Himno Nacional del Perú

National Anthem of Peru - Himno Nacional del Perú

Peruvian Currency

Since 1991 the Nuevo Sol is Peru's currency. The International code for the Peruvian currency Nuevo Sol (S/.) is PEN. The Nuevo Sol is subdivided into 100 Centimos. There are banknotes for S/. 10, S/. 20, S/. 50, S/. 100 and S/. 200. Coins have been issued for 5 Centimos, 10 Centimos, 20 Centimos, 50 Centimos, S/. 1, S/. 2 and S/. 5. Nowadays the Nuevo Sol is a quite stable currency with a moderate inflation and has a more or less steady exchange rate with the US Dollar.

For detailed information on all money related topics check out our money section.

Time Zone in Peru
  • GMT -5
Telephone Dialling Code for Peru
  • + (51)
Internet / Web page abbreviation for Peru
  • .pe
  • .com.pe
Electricity in Peru
  • 230V
  • 60Hz
Climate in Peru
  • Arid and mild in the coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, warm and humid in the jungle lowlands
Flora and Fauna in Peru
  • There are 84 of the world's 103 ecosystems present in Peru
  • Peru is under the five most important centres in the world for genetic resources of plants and animals

Geography of Peru (Location, Neighbors, Area, Terrains, Elevations & Hazards)

Location of Peru
  • Western South America at the Pacific Ocean
Neighboring Countries of Peru
  • North: Ecuador (border of 1420 km) and Colombia (border of 1800 km)
  • East: Brazil (border of 2995 km) and Bolivia (border of 1075 km)
  • South: Chile (border of 171km)
  • West: Pacific Ocean (coastline of 2414 km)
Surface Area in Peru (Land & Water)
  • Total: 1,285,216 km²
  • Land: 1,280,000 km²
  • Water: 5,216 km²
Terrain Types in Peru
  • 11.7% "Costa" - Western coastal plain with deserts, beautiful beaches and fertile valleys
  • 28.4% "Sierra"- Mountainous area dominated by the Andes, where Mount Huascaran rises to 6,768 meters
  • 59.9% "Selva"- Eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin
Elevation Extremes in Peru
  • Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  • Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural Hazards in Peru
  • Earthquakes
  • Tsunamis
  • Flooding
  • Landslides
  • Mild volcanic activity

Government of Peru (Republica del Perú)

Official country name of Peru
  • Republica del Perú
Form of government in Peru
  • Constitutional Republic
Capital of Peru
  • Lima
Independence of Peru
  • 28th July 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution
  • 29th December 1993
Legal System in Peru
  • Based on a civil law system
Executive branch
  • Chief of state: President Ollanta Humala (since 2011)
  • Head of government: President Ollanta Humala (since 2011)
  • Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and led by the Prime Minister
  • Elections: President elected by popular vote for 5 years
Legislative branch
  • Unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru with 130 seats. Members are elected by popular vote for a five year term
Judicial branch
  • Supreme Court of Justice. Judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary
Political parties (with seats in the congress)
  • Gana Peru (Peru Wins)
  • Fuerza 2011 (Force 2011)
  • Alianza Electoral Perú Posible (Possible Peru Alliance)
  • Alianza por el Gran Cambio (Alliance for the Great Change)
  • Alianza Solidaridad Nacional (National Solidarity Alliance)
  • Partido Aprista Peruano (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance)

Read more about Peru's political history and todays politics here 

Administrative Divisions

25 regions and the provinces of Peru: Amazonas, Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacuhco, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima Area, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Main Cities and Main Ports of Peru

Main Cities of Peru (est. Inei 2013)
  • Lima Metropolitana (consisting of the provinces Lima und Callao) 9,585,636 citizens
  • Arequipa: 852,807 citizens
  • Trujillo 779,873 citizens
  • Chiclayo 588,995 citizens
  • Iquitos 427,367 citizens
  • Piura 424,124 citizens
  • Cusco: 413,006 citizens
  • Chimbote: 364,599 citizens
  • Huancayo: 357,279 citizens
  • Tacna: 284,244 citizens
  • Juliaca: 260,607 citizens
  • Ica: 239,363 citizens
  • Pucallpa: 211,611 citizens
  • Cajamarca: 211,608 citizens
Main Ports of Peru
  • Callao, Paita, Salverry, Chimbote, Pisco, Ilo (on the Pacific)
  • Iquitos and Pucallpa (in the Amazon basin)

People & Population in Peru (Ages, Ethnic Groups, Languages & Religions)

Population in Peru (est. Inei 2013)
  • Population: 30,475,144
  • Projected population: 32,824,358 in 2020. 34,412,393 in 2025, 40,111,000 in 2050
  • Population density: 23.7 persons per km²
  • Population growth: 1.13%
Population distribution in Peru (est. Inei 2012)
  • 54,6% on the coast
  • 32,0% in the highlands
  • 13,4% in the Amazon basin
  • 75.9% in cities
  • 24.1% in rural areas
Ages in Peru (Inei 2012)
  • 30.5% of the population are 0 to 14 years
  • 63.1% of the population are 15 years to 64 years
  • 6.4% of the population are 65 and older
  • Average age 26.7 years
Ethnic groups in Peru
  • 45% indigenous Amerindian
  • 37% Mestizo (mixed Native American and white)
  • 15% White
  • 3% Japanese, Chinese, black and others
Languages in Peru
  • Spanish (official)
  • Quecha (official)
  • Aymara and a large number of indigenous Amazonian languages
Religions in Peru (est. Inei 2012)
  • 81.3% Roman Catholics
  • 12.5% Evangelical Protestants
  • 6.2% unspecified or none

Health and Education in Peru (Health, Diseases, Life, Birth, Death, Rates, Education)

Health and Diseases in Peru (est. Inei 2012)
  • Life expectancy total population: 74 years
  • Life expectancy of men: 71 years
  • Life expectancy of women: 76 years
  • Birth rate 19.4 births / 1000 citizens
  • Death rate 5.5 deaths / 1000 citizens
  • Infant mortality rate 18.6 deaths / 1000 live births
  • Malnourished children under 5 years 18.1%
Major Infectious Diseases in Peru
  • Food or waterborne diseases: Bacterial, hepatitis A and typhoid fever
  • Vector borne disease: Dengue fever, malaria and yellow fever
  • Water contact disease: Leptospirosis
Education (Education Ministry 2012)
  • Literacy 93.8% of population age 15 and older can read and write
  • 85% of Peru's students attend public schools
  • 15% of Peru's students attend private schools

Communication and Media (Inei 2013)

  • Telephone 29.4%
  • Mobile Phones 83.4 %
  • Radio 83.0%
  • Cable TV 34.3%
  • PC at home 31.3%
  • Internet connection at home 22.5%

Economy in Peru (GDP, Inflation, Employment, Resources, Industries, Agriculture, Im-Exports)

GDP in Peru (est. IMF 2014)
  • GDP (PPP) total: US$370 billion
  • GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 11,797
  • GDP (nominal) total: US$ 220 billion
  • GDP (nominal) per capita: US$ 7019
  • GDP growth rate 6.3% (2012) and 5.5% - 6% (est. for 2014)
GDP composition by sector (est. 2012)
  • 6.4% Agriculture
  • 36.3% Industry
  • 57.3% Services
Inflation Rate in Peru

Inflation rate 3.08% (2013)

Labour and Employment in Peru (Inei 2013)
  • Labour Force (14 years and older): 16.2 million
  • Urban Unemployment: 6%
  • Underemployment:48%
Poverty in Peru (Inei 2012)
  • Poverty rate: 25.8%
  • Extreme poverty: 6.0%
Natural resources in Peru

Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, natural gas, hydro-power.

Industries in Peru

Mining and refining of minerals, steel, metal fabrication, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing.

Agriculture in Peru

Asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs.

Exports from Peru (CIA World Factbook 2012)
  • Products: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver, crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coffee, asparagus, and other vegetables, fruits, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
  • Mayor partners: China 19,7%, USA 15,5%, Canada 9,4%, Japan 6,5%, Spain 5,2% and Chile 4,8%
Imports to Peru (CIA World Factbook 2012)
  • Products:petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunications equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
  • Major partners: USA 24,4%, China 13,9%, Brazil 6,3%, Argentina 5,4%, Chile 4,7%, Ecuador 4,5%, Colombia 4,2%

Detailed information about Peru's economy can be found in our economy section.

Transport / Infrastructure

Airports in Peru
  • 201 Total Airports in Peru (2009)
  • 57 Airports in Peru with paved runways
  • 144 Airports in Peru with unpaved runways (mostly only airstrips)
Railways in Peru
  • 1989 km of Railway tracks in Peru (total in 2008)
  • 1726 km Railway tracks in Peru with standard gauge
  • 263 km Railway tracks in Peru with narrow gauge
Roads in Peru
  • 78,829 km of Roads in Peru (total in 2004)
  • 11,351 km of paved Roads in Peru
  • 67,478 km of unpaved Roads in Peru
Waterways in Peru
  • 8808 km of Waterways in Peru (total in 2008)
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