Important Facts and Figures about Lima

Important Facts and Figures about Lima Important Facts and Figures about Lima
Lima the capital of the Republic of Peru

General Information about Lima (Foundation 1535)

Lima is the capital of the Republic of Peru
  • Largest city of Peru
  • 16th most populous city in the world
  • 2nd largest capital located in a desert (after Cairo)
  • Political, economic and cultural center of Peru
  • Home to one third of Peru's population
  • Metropolitan Lima is formed by the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao

Time Zone:
  • GMT -5
Telephone Area Code:
  • (1) for the city of Lima
  • (+51) for Peru
Official language (Government language):
  • Spanish

Geography of Lima (Location, Expansion, Rivers)

Geographical position of Lima:
  • West central Peru
  • Located in a desert stripe between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes
  • Mostly on flat terrain of the Peruvian coastal plain
  • Within the valleys of the Chillon, Rimac and Lurin rivers
  • Historical city center is located at the shore of the Rimac river
Expansion of Lima:
  • Area of around 2700 km²
  • Metropolitan Lima stretches from the north to the south along the Pacific Ocean for around 80 km
  • Metropolitan Lima stretches west to east from the Pacific to the Andes for around 40 km

Important Rivers:
  • Río Rimac
  • Río Chillón
  • Río Lurin

Climate in Lima (Climate, Average Temperatures)

  • Mild climate throughout the year, despite being located in the tropics and in a desert
  • Microclimates make the atmosphere very humid all year round
  • Sunny, moist and warm summers
  • Cloudy, humid and mild winters
  • December - May with average daily temperatures range from 25°C to 32°C
  • June - November with average daily temperatures between 12°C and 20°C

Detailed information on the weather situation in Lima can be found on our Weather & Climate page.

Main Problems of Lima (Growth, Development, Infrastructure, Traffic, Society)

  • Rapid population growth
  • Limited space for city expansion (location in a valley, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the Andes)
  • No controlled urban development
  • Informal way of urban development, in which people settle on the land before it even has been developed
  • Division of Lima into 43 separate districts, each with its own mayor and municipality (making joined decisions very difficult)
  • Undeveloped or even missing infrastructure and poverty in poorer areas and slums
  • Un- and underemployment
  • Immense traffic without proper public transport system
  • Heavy air pollution
  • Lack of rain
  • Social inequality

People in Lima (Population, Ethnic Groups, Distribution)

Population in Lima:
  • Population of Lima City (43 districts): 8,617,314 (Inei 2013)
  • Population of Metropolitan Lima (Lima City & the Province of Callao): 9,585,636 (Inei 2013)
  • Population density for the city of Lima: 2,846 people / km² (Census 2007)
  • Population density for Metropolitan Lima: 3,008 people / km² (Census 2007)
  • Over 35% of Lima's population lives in squatter settlements called "pueblos jovenes" (young towns) or "barriadas" (shantytowns)
Ethnic groups in Lima:
  • About 70% Mestizo (mixed European and indigenous Indians)
  • About 15% Whites
  • About 10% Amerindians
  • About 5% Asians and Blacks

Population distribution in Lima:
  • 25% in the Cono Norte (Ancón, Carabayllo, Comas, Independencia, Los Olivos, Puente Piedra, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Santa Rosa)
  • 12% in Eastern Lima (Ate, Cieneguilla, Chaclacayo, El Agustino, Lurigancho, San Luis, Santa Anita)
  • 20% in the Cono Sur (Chorrillos, Lurín, Pachacamac, Pucusana, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, San Juan de Miraflores, Santa María del Mar, Villa el Salvador, Villa María del Triunfo)
  • 11% in Central Lima Breña, La Victoria, Downtown Lima, Rimac)
  • 20% in Residential Lima (Barranco, Jesús María, La Molina, Lince, Magdalena, Miraflores, Pueblo Libre, San Borja, San Isidro, San Miguel, Santiago de Surco, Surquillo)
  • 12% in Callao Bellavista, Callao District, Carmen de la Legua Reynoso, La Perla, La Punta, Ventanilla District)

Education in Lima (Schools, Universities)

Schools in Lima:

Choice of fee required, costly private national and international schools or government funded public schools

  • Public schools drastically lack all sorts of resources
  • 2.3% of Metropolitan Lima's population older than 15 years has no education
  • 11.8% of Metropolitan Lima's population older than 15 years has primary education
  • 42.9% of Metropolitan Lima's population older than 15 years has secondary education
  • 43.0% of Metropolitan Lima's population older than 15 years has higher education
Universities in Lima:

There are numerous recognized public and private universities. Lima is home to the oldest university in the Americas - the National University of San Marcos (1551)

Other universities include:
  • The Engineering University
  • The La Molina National Agrarian University
  • The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
  • The University of San Martín de Porres
  • The University of Lima and the Ricardo Palma University

Transport / Infrastructure in Lima (Airport, Port, Train, Roads, Public Transport)

  • Jorge Chavez International Airport in Callao
  • Callao (majority of imports and exports move through it)
  • Desamparados Train Station, only one public train leaves Lima on a regular base for a trip on the world's highest railway from Lima to Huancayo
Main Roads:
  • Pan American Highway (Pan Americana) runs from North to South along the coast
  • Central Highway (Carretera Central) runs from East to West and connects Lima with the Peruvian highlands

Public Transport:
  • No proper system of public transportation
  • Main public transport is organized by tens of thousands poor maintained small buses and around 200,000 taxis
  • In June 2010 the first route of Lima's new public transportation system, called the "Metropolitano" was opened; gas buses that drive on a newly build highway with a fancy underground bus station in Lima's City Center running from Chorrillos in the south to Independencia in the north. More routes are being planned.
  • Another ambitious project is an above ground electric mass transit system, the "Tren Electrico" (Electric Train). Planned and started to build in the 1980s the project lay idle for years. Finally in April 2010 works began to finish at least Route 1 from Villa El Salvador in the south of Lima to San Juan de Lurigancho in the north. The first part of Route 1 was finished in 2011 and trains started running in December 2011. Construction for the second part of Line 1 started in April 2012 and is scheduled to be completed by 2014.

Tourism in Lima (Tourist Destination - Lima)

Visitors welcome!

Lima is a destination for itself with a plentiful and diverse offer for everyone with a rich archaeological, cultural and historical past. Uncountable museums, amazing historical buildings and beautiful parks make the visit worth while.

Visitor friendly infrastructure:
  • International airport
  • Many bus companies
  • Affordable taxi services
  • Numerous hotels in all categories
  • Travel agencies
  • Tour operators, restaurants
  • Shopping facilities
  • Excellent hospitals and doctors (just in case you need it)

Economy in Lima (Employment, GDP, Industry, Stock Exchange)

  • Unemployment 5.7% (Inei 2013)
  • Underemployment 41% (Inei 2013)
  • Minimum wage S/. 750 per month (2013)
  • Average wage S/. 1370.- (Inei 2013)


Lima produces more than two thirds of the Peruvian GDP, taxes, bank deposits, private investments, doctors and university students.

  • GDP growth rate 6.3% (2012); 5.5% - 6% (estimate for 2014)
  • Inflation rate 3.08 (2013)
Industry & Services:
  • Almost all of Peru's mayor industries are located in the Lima area
  • Main Products: textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather, paper and oil derivatives are also manufactured and/or processed in Lima
  • Commercial activities are spread throughout the city
  • Service sector (retail and wholesale business, trade, finance, tourism)
Lima Stock Exchange - Bolsa de Valores de Lima:
  • One of the world's fastest growing and most profitable stock exchanges


  • INEI – Instituto Nacional Estadística y Informácion, República de Perú
  • LimaEasy SAC (c)
  • Guest (Mike)

    Great site, thanks so much for all the useful information!

  • Guest (Jen)

    Very great information! Heading to Peru in May can't wait! this info was and will always be very useful thanks! God bless!
    ~from New Mexico:):):):):):):D:D:D

  • Thanks a lot for the compliment! Hope you have a great stay in Peru. Enjoy your trip!

  • Guest (Felix)

    Many thanks for such great information as I am thinking of investing in Peru. From UK,London

Add comment