Peruvian National Flag
The Bandera Nacional is the national flag of Peru. It was adopted by the Peruvian government on the 25th of February 1825. Peru's flag is composed of three equal, verticals bands in red, white and red; the colors of the Inca Empire. On the national flag the red symbolizes the bloodshed during the struggle for Peru's independence and the bravery of the men fighting for freedom. The white represents peace and justice.
This flag is known as the civil flag. It's for example raised by the citizens on private buildings and houses during the month of July celebrating Peru's Independence Day or when Peruvians participate at international sporting events.
Peruvian State Flag
The Pabellón Nacional is Peru's state flag or national ensign. It's exclusively used by Peruvian state institutions or during official state businesses. The flag has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the National Flag. But the central white band includes the Escudo de Armas, the Peruvian Coat of Arms.
The Coat of Arms consists of the national shield (the Escudo Nacional) containing on the upper left a vicuña (Peru's national animal), on the upper right a chinchona tree (native to the tropical Andes region and the source for the anti-malaria drug quinine) and on the bottom a coin filled cornucopia. These represent Peru's fauna, flora and mineral wealth. The shield is topped with a Holm oak Civic Crown and surrounded by a palm branch on the left and a laurel branch on the right that are tied together with a red and white ribbon.
The same Coat of Arms appears on the back of all Peruvian coins.
Peruvian War Flag
The Bandera De Guerra is the war flag of Peru. It's used by the Armed Forces and National Police. The war flag has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the national flag and the state flag. But the central white band includes the national shield flanked by Peruvian flags instead of the palm and laurel branches used on the state flag.
Some units of the Peruvian Police and Armed Forces place their service, name and regiment under the national shield on their own flags.